European Union recommendations on in vitro studies of interest for chemical testing

Predictive toxicology studies of relevance to in vitro studies

Industry notices and guidance documents of FDA by topic and by industry

Virtual liver project

Independent assessment and validation of drug safety testing methods



The following articles highlight the value of organotypic slice culture model:

  • 3D Hepatic in vitro models as tools for toxicity studies. Current Tissue Engineering 2:78-89 (2013)
  • Empirical validation of a rat in vitro organ slice model as a tool for in vivo clearance prediction. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 34: 591-599 (2006)
  • Organotypic cultures represent tumor microenvironment for drug testing. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models 3(2):143-149 (2006)
  • Toxicity testing: creating a revolution based on new technologies. Trends in Biotechnology 23 (6): 299-307 (2005)


Publications of interest on organ slice cultures:

  • Fisher RL and Vickers AEM. Preparation and culture of precision-cut organ slices from human and animal. Xenobiotica, 43:8-14 (2013).
  • Vickers AEM and Fisher RL. Evaluation of drug-induced injury and human response in precision-cut tissue slices. Xenobiotica, 43:29-40 (2013).
  • Vickers AEM, Fisher R, Olinga P and Dial S. Repair pathways evident in human liver organ slices. Toxicology in Vitro, 25:1485-1492 (2011).
  • Vickers AEM, Bentley P and Fisher RL. Consequences of mitochondrial injury induced by pharmaceutical fatty acid oxidation inhibitors is characterized in human and rat liver slices. Toxicology in Vitro, 20:1173-1182 (2006).
  • Nave R, Fisher R and Zech K. In vitro metabolism of ciclesonide in human lung and liver precision-cut tissue slices. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition, 27:197-207 (2006).
  • Vickers AEM and Fisher RL. Precision-cut organ slices to investigate target organ injury. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, 1:687-699 (2005).
  • Vickers AEM, Saulinier M, Cruz E, Merema MT, Rose K, Bentley P and Olinga P. Organ slice viability extended for pathway characterization: An in vitro model to investigate fibrosis. Toxicological Sciences, 82:534-544 (2004).
  • Vickers AEM, Rose K, Fisher R, Saulnier M, Sahota P and Bentley P. Kidney slices of human and rat to characterize cisplatin-induced injury on cellular pathways and morphology. Toxicologic Pathology, 32:577-590 (2004).
  • Catania JM, Parrish AR, Kirkpatrick DS, Chitkara M, Bowden GT, Henderson CJ, Wolf CR, Clark AJ, Brendel K, Fisher RL and Gandolfi AJ. Precision-cut tissue slices from transgenic mice as an in vitro toxicology system. Toxicology in Vitro, 17:201-205 (2003).
  • Fisher RL, Hasal SJ, Lipscomb JC, Gandolfi AJ and Brendel K. Cold- and cryopreservation of monkey liver slices. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 12:1-15 (2002).
  • Fisher RL, Ulreich JB, Nakazato PZ and Brendel K. Histological and biochemical evaluation of precision-cut liver slices. Toxicology Methods, 11:59-79 (2001).


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